Sacred Heart Review

<i>Sacred Heart Review</i>, <a href="http://newspapers.bc.edu/cgi-bin/bostonsh?a=d&amp;d=BOSTONSH19100813-01&amp;e=-------en-20--1--txt-IN-----">August 13, 1910</a>, Vol. 44, No. 8.

Sacred Heart Review, August 13, 1910, Vol. 44, No. 8.

The Sacred Heart Review was a Catholic newspaper published in Cambridge and Boston from 1888 to 1918 devoted to local, national, and international news.  The entire 60-volume run has been digitized and is now available online as part of the Boston College Digital Collections. Many of the articles in this newspaper reported on the Catholic Church in the Archdiocese of Boston as well as greater New England, along with pieces that explicated and defended Catholicism. The statement on the paper’s masthead explains its mission succinctly:

Our object: to furnish sound, instructive, and entertaining reading for the Catholic family; to explain, illustrate, and defend the doctrines, devotion, and practices of the Church.

The first order of business in the digitization process was to inventory the masses of volumes that were delivered to the Burns Library. Since some of these bound volumes turned out to be in three-hole punched loose leaf, the only way to know exactly what we had was to go through each volume, issue-by-issue. The Sacred Heart Review was published as two volumes per year, 26 issues to the volume. Given the number of duplicates we had – in some cases there were five or six duplicates of a particular volume – the job appeared to be a very long and dry exercise in spreadsheet creation. But it was just that “long and dry exercise” that led directly to the Review becoming a completely searchable digitized text.

As I thumbed through each issue of each volume I was drawn into the newspaper’s world – the world of turn-of-the-last-century Boston. Through the newspaper’s advertisements, articles, columns and even printing presentation, I entered a paper time machine that became more and more compelling the more I cataloged. By the time I was finished I had become convinced that this journal would be an ideal addition to the greater digital library; only six libraries nation-wide had holdings of the Review, and of these only three – BC, Library of Congress and Marquette University – had complete holdings.

<i>Sacred Heart Review</i>, <a href="http://newspapers.bc.edu/cgi-bin/bostonsh?a=d&d=BOSTONSH19150102-01.2.8&e=-------en-20--1--txt-IN-----">January 2, 1915</a>, Vol. 53, No. 3.

Sacred Heart Review, January 2, 1915, Vol. 53, No. 3.

What did I find that was so compelling? And how would the digitization of this newspaper advance scholarship?  The front pages of the paper always covered current events in both the political and intellectual spheres.  In addition, most issues of the Review devoted at least some space to coverage of events in the Archdiocese of Boston, and some issues were devoted – in part or in whole, in the case of supplements – to reporting the affairs of the Catholic Church throughout greater New England. Since the paper’s period correlates to the rise of what some have called the “golden age of American Catholicism,” it represents an extraordinarily rich resource with which to mine information about this period.  For example:  in vol. 53, no. 3 (Jan. 2, 1915) the cover article contained Pope Benedict XV’s encyclical Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum, which described his grief at the slaughter that had just begun to envelope Europe. Terming the war the “suicide of civilized Europe,” Benedict attempted to mediate between the Allies and the Central Powers, but was rejected by both sides.  Vol. 56, no. 17 (Oct. 7, 1916) saw another front-page article concerning the war, entitled “German-Americans Loyal.” Anti-German sentiment had become high in the country (for example, one man of German descent was lynched in Illinois simply because of his ethnic background, and the jury appointed to try the case described the act as “patriotic”), but the Review strongly defended the patriotism of its German-American parishioners and indeed of German-Americans everywhere.

This column offered lessons in reading Irish, <i>Sacred Heart Review</i>, <a href="http://newspapers.bc.edu/cgi-bin/bostonsh?a=d&amp;d=BOSTONSH19100709-01&amp;e=-------en-20--1--txt-IN-----"> July 9, 1910</a>, vol. 44, no. 3.

This column offered lessons in reading Irish, Sacred Heart Review, July 9, 1910, vol. 44, no. 3.

Since many of the subscribers to the newspaper were Irish-Americans, the Review often featured articles and columns dealing with Irish heritage. Advertisements offering inexpensive rates to travel back to Ireland were prominently featured, as were columns dealing with Irish language and culture.  Finally, popular culture is treated in every issue with the many advertisements that brought income to the Review. From the standpoint of both history and cultural studies the Review offers many insights into this period of history.  It is also possible to trace the rise and fall of gas lighting through the advertisements of the Cambridge Gas Light Company. Towards that end the ads attempted to fend off the encroaching dominance of electric lighting by offering very inexpensive rates.

 

<i>Sacred Heart Review</i>, <a href="http://newspapers.bc.edu/cgi-bin/bostonsh?a=d&d=BOSTONSH19001229-01&e=-------en-20--1--txt-IN-----">Dec. 29, 1900</a>, Vol. 24, No. 26.

Sacred Heart Review, Dec. 29, 1900, Vol. 24, No. 26.

Every issue featured advertisements from local patent medicine manufacturers such as Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound, Dr. Greene’s Nervura, Father John’s, and Dr. Pierce’s Pleasant Pellets. See for example vol. 24, no. 26 (Dec. 29, 1900) , and especially the full-page ad “A cry for help” purchased by the Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Co., Lynn, Mass. in vol. 13 (n.s. 1), no. 12 (Mar. 23, 1895).  Most of these firms disappeared or changed the nature of their products after the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act; for example, Dr. Greene’s was found to contain 18% alcohol, along with ginger, and the owners were fined. Lydia Pinkham’s medicine, aimed at the reduction of menstrual cramps, was actually found to have genuine medicinal properties and the firm is still in business. Songs have been written about Pinkham, and a B-17 bomber in WWII was named “Lydia Pinkham.” The bomber, unfortunately, did not have the same luck as Ms. Pinkham’s customers, and was shot down.  The Review itself advertised that it offered “A First-Class College Education FREE to any boy who sends the Sacred Heart Review offices 100 new subscriptions 4 years of either preparatory (High School) course, or 4 years of college course at Boston College.” Similar offers were made for Holy Cross College and Mt. St. Joseph Academy. See vol. 34, no. 2 (July 8, 1905).

These short descriptions provide but an inkling as to the contents of this incredible resource.  Thanks to the work of Bill Donovan, Betsy Post, Brian Meuse, Naomi Rubin, and Greg Tallent, the Sacred Heart Review can now be viewed, searched and downloaded in either individual issue or complete volume form at newspapers.bc.edu.  The online version was also made possible, in part, by the John and Ruth Galvin Endowed Fund for the Boston Collection at the John J. Burns Library.  If you have further questions or would like to do research in the Boston Collection, please contact the Burns Library Reading Room at 617-552-4861 or burnsref@bc.edu.

David-RichtmyerDavid Richtmyer, Rare Books Librarian & Senior Cataloger, Burns Library

 

 

 

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Lexica Jesuitica: Missioner Dictionaries of Latin America

Missioner Dictionaries of Latin America

Five grammars and dictionaries published by Jesuits for their fellow missionaries working among the indigenous peoples of Argentina, Chile, and Peru.

The Jesuitica Collection in the Burns Library conserves some of the earliest written records of Amerindian spoken languages. As Jesuits pursued their missionary commitments among the peoples they met, they compiled dictionaries and grammars to help them in their efforts. These reference works not only shed light on Jesuit priorities as they sought to communicate a new religion and its social mandates to Amerindian peoples; they also preserve whole vocabularies saturated with pre-Columbian cultural norms. So while these texts were produced in a moment of colonial encounter, they survive as invaluable treasures of both European and Amerindian ways of thought.

<a title="Vocabulario de la lengua general de todo el Peru llamada lengua Qquichua, o del inca (1607)" href="http://bclib.bc.edu/libsearch/bc/keyword/ALMA-BC21387241650001021" target="_blank"><em>Vocabulario de la lengua general de todo el Peru llamada lengua Qquichua, o del inca</em> (1607)</a>. Before this volume arrived into the care of the Burns Library, these pages were damaged by book worms like our very own <a title="Conservator’s Notebook: Arthur the Theologian (Burns Library Blog)" href="http://johnjburnslibrary.wordpress.com/2013/07/29/conservators-notebook-arthur-the-theologian/" target="_blank">"Arthur the Theologian."</a>

Vocabulario de la lengua general de todo el Peru llamada lengua Qquichua, o del inca (1607). Before this volume arrived into the care of the Burns Library, these pages were damaged by book worms like our very own “Arthur the Theologian.”

Some highlights from these collections include a grammar and dictionary of the Incan Quechua language (Lima, 1607); a dictionary of the Aymara language spoken in Peru and Chile (1612); a second early Quechua grammar and dictionary (Lima, 1614); a dictionary of the Guarani language spoken among the Jesuit reductions in Paraguay (Madrid, 1639); and a dictionary of the Mapuche language of Chile (Lima, 1765).

These volumes are remarkably diverse, and each has its own story to tell. The last of these holds particular historical interest as the Society of Jesus celebrates the bicentennial of its restoration. The text is an introduction to the Mapudungun language by the Catalan Jesuit Andres Febrés, published in 1765 during the early years of the Jesuit suppression. This volume includes a grammar, sample dialogues, and a dictionary of frequent words; a catechism, common prayers, a guide for confessions, and sample sermons in translation; and a comprehensive Spanish–Mapudungun dictionary. But this text is not a timeless document; it is deeply rooted in the circumstances of its production.

Tesoro de la lengua guarani (1639)

Frontispiece for Tesoro de la lengua guarani (1639). The captions around the image read: “Mary, conceived without the sin of original sin,” and “[He] made salvable the nations of the earth, Wis. 1:14.”

Mapudungun, sometimes known as Araucano or Aruacania, is the language of the Mapuche people of central Chile. The Mapuche had doggedly resisted Spanish rule since the first party of conquistadors attempted to impose a colonial presence in 1536. The 1760s were again a time of tension, as the Royal Governor of Chile pressed the Mapuche people to consolidate into cities and the Mapuche people resisted with increasing violence. Meanwhile the Jesuits were themselves on the defensive. Portugal and France had expelled their Jesuits, the Spanish king threatened to do the same, and the Bourbon monarchs were pressing the Pope to dissolve the Order worldwide.

So it was into an atmosphere of Spanish hostility, Jesuit uncertainty, and Mapuche resistance that Andres Febrés published his Mapudungun grammar in Lima in 1765. In one of his most brilliantly crafted passages, Febrés imagines a dialogue between two Mapuche meeting for the first time, ostensibly as an example to teach his Spanish-speaking audience some basic conversational Mapudungun. What he achieved is something else altogether. In a few short lines, the Jesuit Febrés managed to sympathize with the restive Mapuche, censure the secularizing Spaniards seeking to suppress his Order, and justify the Jesuit mission in the Spanish colonies.

Arte de la lengua general del reyno de Chile (1765)

From Arte de la lengua general del reyno de Chile, con un dialogo chileno-hispano muy curioso (1765): “The following dialogue will be translated in large part sense-for-sense, not word-for-word, adapting Indian phrases into Castilian when a more literal fidelity is not possible.”

As one Mapuche laments recent Spanish atrocities in Chile, his counterpart interrupts: “Others have already given me news of the land of Chile, the Spaniards, their arrival, and their wars! But you are being stingy with me – sparing me the news of the Jesuit Fathers, their arrival, and the good things they do here on earth.”

This short exchange imagines the world not as it was but as Febrés wished it to be. For a brief moment in 1765, Febrés could imagine a utopia where his fellow Spaniards would forgo their economic depredations and make way for Jesuit works, the liberated Mapuche would encounter the Jesuits by choice and not by coercion, and the Spanish empire as a whole might profit from this new-found peace and build upon the prosperity rather then the exploitation of its peoples. But this was a world that would not come to pass. The Mapuche would enter into open revolt the following year, and a year later, the Spanish king would expel the Jesuit Order from his lands. And as Febrés’s dream faded from memory, a rare copy of his Arte de la lengua general del Reyno de Chile began its long journey from Lima, Peru, to Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts.

These volumes and other treasures of the Jesuit past may be found in the Burns Library Jesuitica Collection. To learn more about the Jesuitica Collection at the Burns Library, browse the digitized book and manuscript holdings in the BC Libraries Digital Collections or read about exhibits of the Jesuitica Collection on the Burns exhibits page. If you have further questions or would like to do research in the Jesuitica collection, please contact the Burns Library Reading Room at 617-552-4861 or burnsref@bc.edu.

  • Matthew Delvaux, Burns Library Reading Room Student Assistant & Ph.D. Student in the Department of History.
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Prism of Russia: Cornelis de Bruyn and Robert G. Latham

Cornelis de Bruyn’s Russia

View of Moscow from <a href = "http://bc-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/dlSearch.do?institution=BCL&vid=bclib&onCampus=true&group=GUEST&loc=local,scope:(BCL)&query=any,contains,ALMA-BC21347388410001021" <i>Travels into Muscovy, Persia, and Part of the East Indies</i></a> by Cornelis de Bruyn, 1737, DS 7.B93 Oversize, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

View of Moscow from Travels into Muscovy, Persia, and Part of the East Indies by Cornelis de Bruyn, 1737, DS 7.B93 Oversize, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

Often, the images brought back by famous travelers like Cornelis de Bruyn and published in their travel accounts would be the only exposure the average person would have to vast expanses of the globe.  While not exactly “maps” in the traditional, navigational sense, these sketches and drawings wielded enormous power in defining a space and shaping the public’s understanding of their world.

Man with reindeer from <a href="http://bc-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/dlSearch.do?institution=BCL&amp;vid=bclib&amp;onCampus=true&amp;group=GUEST&amp;loc=local,scope:(BCL)&amp;query=any,contains,ALMA-BC21347388410001021"><i>Travels into Muscovy, Persia, and Part of the East Indies</i></a> by Cornelis de Bruyn, 1737, DS 7.B93 Oversize, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

Man with reindeer from Travels into Muscovy, Persia, and Part of the East Indies by Cornelis de Bruyn, 1737, DS 7.B93 Oversize, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

However, these images would more often reflect the various authors’ interpretations of that space rather than hard and fast objective fact, as can be seen in these three images.  Here, the selected images display the cultural biases at play in the mind of the traveler Cornelis de Bruyn.  These images and the larger travel narrative they come from helped familiarize the far off lands of Russia to citizens of the west.  However, de Bruyn’s Russia is heavily distorted by his own personal judgments and larger western stereotypes.

  • Mark Relation, BC Class of 2015 & Spring 2014 Making History Public Student

Robert G. Latham:  Mapping Russia’s Ethnicities

Map titled "An Ethnographical Map of Russia in Europe" by Robert G. Latham from <a href = "http://bc-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/dlSearch.do?institution=BCL&vid=bclib&onCampus=true&group=GUEST&loc=local,scope:(BCL)&query=any,contains,ALMA-BC21357854370001021" <i>The Native Races of the Russian Empire</i></a>, DK 33 .L35, General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College. Robert Latham’s text was published in 1854 and relies on his own study as well as the Petersburg map which was drawn in 1852.

Map titled “An Ethnographical Map of Russia in Europe” by Robert G. Latham from The Native Races of the Russian Empire, DK 33 .L35, General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College. Robert Latham’s text was published in 1854 and relies on his own study as well as the Petersburg map which was drawn in 1852.

In the 1850s, when Robert G. Latham wrote The Native Races of the Russian Empire, ethnography looked like an empirical version of anthropology, focused around statistics and labeling of cultures as a way of classifying and comparing the foreign ethnic groups in a region. In this way mapping and anthropology were related as ethnographers sought to catalog peoples in various countries. Ethnography grew out of colonization and European empires’ wishes to organize and understand their new territories, including the people living there. Though many travel accounts had already recorded the various non-European ethnic groups across the globe by the time Latham and the St. Petersburg Geographical society were writing, new scientific ideas and imperial competition spurred ethnographers to re-evaluate foreign cultures.

Reference box from map in The Native Races of the Russian Empire, DK 33 .L35, General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

As an ethnographer and philologist, Robert Latham focused much of his ethnographical research in The Native Races of the Russian Empire on the racial origins and linguistics of the various ethnic communities in Russia. This method differed from earlier accounts of foreign peoples in that it stressed a more “scientific” approach to the study of origins rather than a descriptive approach, suggesting that the ethnographic community in the mid-nineteenth century viewed their work as progressive. Latham was not looking to mold his own research to popular ideas at the time. Therefore his exact theories should not necessarily be taken as the majority opinion. Nevertheless, his work and that of the St. Petersburg Geographical Society reflect a larger trend towards ethnography and, to an extent, philology, as the most progressive forms of classification of people and places outside Europe in the mid nineteenth-century.

  • Lauren Rever, BC Class of 2019 & Spring 2014 Making History Public Student

The images and content in this blog post are from the exhibit Ordering the Unknown:  The European Mapping Tradition from 1600 to 1860, which is now on display in the History Department, Stokes 3rd Floor South.    This exhibit was curated and organized by Professor Sylvia Sellers-Garcia’s Spring 2014 Making History Public class, in collaboration with the Boston College University Libraries.  

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Discovery of Witches: Materials on Witchcraft at the Burns Library

Two of the most influential books for secular witch-hunting courts in 16th - 17th CE Europe are in the Burns Library's Collections. On the left, <i> Malleus Maleficarum</i> and on the right <i> Daemonolatreiae libri tres</i>.

Two of the most influential books for secular witch-hunting courts in 16th – 17th CE Europe are in the Burns Library’s Collections. On the left, Malleus Maleficarum and on the right Daemonolatreiae libri tres.

As Halloween approaches, all of the typical iconography of the season steadily fills the windows and lawns of individuals across the country. Skeletons, ghosts, tombstones, and especially witches, are on full display wherever one looks. But these things were not always the light-hearted frivolities that they are today. Historically, witches have been seen as real forces at work in the world around us. Consequently, they were hunted down by the righteous, in order to protect the innocent.  In pre-1750 Europe, these witch hunts were formal, structured legal ordeals. Countless women were put on trial and burned for supposed witchcraft, leading one to wonder what would cause such a phenomenon to occur. Evidence of what may have sparked these witch hunts can be traced through careful examination of some of the books in the Burns Library’s collections.

<a href="http://bc-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/dlSearch.do?institution=BCL&amp;vid=bclib&amp;onCampus=true&amp;group=GUEST&amp;loc=local,scope:(BCL)&amp;query=any,contains,ALMA-BC21353593270001021"><i>Malleus Maleficarum</i></a> by Heinrich Kramer, published in Lyon, 1614, BF 1569 .A1 I5 1614, General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

Malleus Maleficarum by Heinrich Kramer, published in Lyon, 1614, BF 1569 .A1 I5 1614, General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

In 1487, the Malleus Maleficarum (which translates to “Hammer of the Witches”), which would soon become a staple reference text for witch hunters, was published. Within it, its author Heinrich Kramer attempts to lay out his general knowledge of witches, their practices, and how best to combat them. He also attempts, by the laying out of this information, to prove to doubters that witches do indeed exist. Further, he claims that witches are far more likely to be women than men, as women are far more susceptible to demonic temptations in their weakness, and that these women are responsible for  infanticides, cannibalism, and the theft of the genitals of unsuspecting men. This inherently sexist approach to the topic of magic is perhaps a major contributing factor of our modern conception of the witch as female and, consequently, the prosecution of countless innocent women.  Due to the invention of the printing press, the book was able to spread across Europe and incite panic and witch hunting fervor.

<a href="http://bc-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/dlSearch.do?institution=BCL&amp;vid=bclib&amp;onCampus=true&amp;group=GUEST&amp;loc=local,scope:(BCL)&amp;query=any,contains,ALMA-BC21343666540001021&quot;&lt;"><i>Daemonolatreiae libri tres</i></a> by Nicolas Remy, published in Cologne, 1596, 03-49062, General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

Daemonolatreiae libri tres by Nicolas Remy, published in Cologne, 1596, 03-49062, General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

Over time the Malleus Maleficarum was replaced by a newer tome of witch lore. The 1595 book Daemonolatreiae libri tres, or simply “Demonalotry” in translation, became the standard manual for witch-hunters after its publication. A much smaller text, the information in this book is drawn from the personal experiences of its author, Nicholas Remy.  Remy reportedly hunted down and put to death 900 people.   In addition, Remy did extensive research on witchcraft,  gathering citations about various witch cases from a variety of authors and archives. Remy was a consummate professional as he worked his way through cases, approaching each case with the same impassioned zeal for justice. His passion for the destruction of witches stemmed from the death of his favorite son, struck down in a street accident, after a beggar woman supposedly bewitched him. Fact checking his work proved difficult, as all of the materials he examined from archives mysteriously disappeared.

The Discovery of Witchcraft by Reginald Scott, printed in 1665 in London, BF 1565 .S4 1665, Williams Collection, John J. Burns Library.

The Discovery of Witchcraft by Reginald Scott, printed in 1665 in London, BF 1565 .S4 1665, Williams Collection, John J. Burns Library.

This is not to say, however, that the notion of real witches went unchallenged. Many intellectuals and church officials rebelled against this notion and attempted to quell the witch hunting frenzy.  Among the skeptics was English gentleman and MP Reginald Scot, who wrote The Discovery of Witchcraft,  first published in 1584, in order to disprove the existence of witches. In it, he attempts to convince his audience that witches do not exist by explicating, in detail, the ways in which charlatans had fooled the masses into believing that they were capable of performing magic. Scot worked under the assumption that both reason and religion could work to disprove the existence of witchcraft. He himself belonged to a fringe religious sect of Christians known as the Familists, who believed that Satan was entirely mental in nature, and not a physical entity who could be invoked for the purposes of witchcraft. This belief predisposed Scot to skepticism, and The Discovery of Witchcraft soon became a textbook of the common superstitions surrounding witchcraft of his time. Shakespeare himself used this book as a reference for his witches in the play Macbeth.

March 31, 1692 letter by Cotton Mather regarding the Salem Witch Trials, <a href="http://bc-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/dlSearch.do?institution=BCL&amp;vid=bclib&amp;onCampus=true&amp;group=GUEST&amp;loc=local,scope:(BCL)&amp;query=any,contains,ALMA-BC21344122680001021">Cotton Mather Letters</a>, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

March 31, 1692 letter by Cotton Mather regarding the Salem Witch Trials, Cotton Mather Letters, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

Despite Scot’s work, persecution of those accused of witchcraft would go on for centuries. Over a century after the work of Scot, witch hysteria was in full swing in the new world. The now famous Salem Witch Trials resulted in the executions of twenty individuals accused of witchcraft. A prominent figure in these events was the Reverend Cotton Mather.  Mather’s pamphlets on witchcraft exacerbated the growing fear in the community. Yet even Mather advocated, at the very least, for moderation in these trials. The Burns Library owns three letters written by Mather.  In one of these letters, dated March 31st, 1692, Mather wrote that “When you are satisfyd, or have good, plain, legal Evidence, That the Demons which molest our poor Neighbours, do indeed represent such and such people…yett I suppose that you will not reckon it, a Conviction, that the people so represented are Witches, to bee immediately Exterminated.” Despite his belief in witches, Mather appears to have some mercy for the accused:  believing that all cases may not be true witchcraft, but rather the work of demons against the will of the accused.

If you are interested in learning more about Burns Library holdings on witchcraft, please contact the Burns Library Reading Room at 617-552-4861 or burnsref@bc.edu.  You may also learn more about theses books by doing a basic search for witchcraft in Holmes, the BC University Libraries online catalog.  If you need help with searching in Holmes, visit this guide to learn some tips and tricks.

  • Zach Weinsteiger, Burns Library Reading Room Assistant & M.A. Student in the English Department
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Exhibitions Update: The Everyman’s Library

EverymansLibrary4A new Burns Library exhibit, The Everyman’s Library: Volumes from the Collections of the John J. Burns Library is now on display in the Margaret E. Ford Tower through December 31, 2014. The Everyman’s Library (EML) was first conceived in 1905 by the publisher Joseph Malaby Dent and editor Ernest Rhys. The goal of EML was to create a collection of 1,000 volumes of classic literature that would appeal to every type of person, from students, scholars and professionals to the everyday working man. They would be divided into different categories, originally thirteen in total and have corresponding design attributes. The key to this endeavor was to make the books affordable, and they were originally available for the very low price of one shilling. The name “Everyman” comes from the medieval play of the same name in which the character Knowledge says the following to the character Everyman:

Everyman, I will go with thee
and be thy guide,
In thy most need to go
by thy side.

This 1910 edition of Warren Hastings: A Biography is an excellent example of the beautiful title page that editions of EML had until the mid 1930’s. It was designed by Reginald Knowles and is inspired by the works of William Morris, a 19th century artist who founded the Kelmscott Press. Each of the thirteen subject areas of EML had a different design and quote. This quote (for biography) is by John Milton. This volume is from the Williams Collection.

This 1910 edition of Warren Hastings: A Biography is an excellent example of the beautiful title page that editions of EML had until the mid 1930’s. It was designed by Reginald Knowles and is inspired by the works of William Morris, a 19th century artist who founded the Kelmscott Press. Each of the thirteen subject areas of EML had a different design and quote. This quote (for biography) is by John Milton. This volume is from the Williams Collection.

The library began publication in February 1906 and four years later 500 volumes had already been published. Through two world wars and a depression, the series finally published volume 1,000 in 1956. In 1988 the publishing company J.M. Dent was sold and eventually the Everyman series was re-launched in the early 1990s. Though very different from the early editions of 1906, you can still buy Everyman’s Library books through Alfred A. Knopf in the United States and Random House abroad.

This exhibit has two purposes; first to show the changing styles of EML throughout the many decades it was in print, and second to show the variety of collections at the Burns Library that contain volumes of the series.

This 1911 edition of A Tale of a Tub: The Battle of the Books and Other Satires by Jonathan Swift is an excellent illustration of the paste-downs used by EML from 1906-1934. Like the title page and spine, it was designed by Reginald Knowles. It features a quote from the medieval morality play Everyman. The woman pictured is the character Good Deeds, and the quote was said by her sister, Knowledge. This edition is from the Irish Collection.

This 1911 edition of A Tale of a Tub: The Battle of the Books and Other Satires by Jonathan Swift is an excellent illustration of the paste-downs used by EML from 1906-1934. Like the title page and spine, it was designed by Reginald Knowles. It features a quote from the medieval morality play Everyman. The woman pictured is the character Good Deeds, and the quote was said by her sister, Knowledge. This edition is from the Irish Collection.

EML went through four distinct styles from 1906-1968. Style I lasted from 1906-1928 and is perhaps the most recognizable. It contained a gilt floral decorative spine, as well as ornamental title pages and paste-downs. Style II from 1928-1934 kept the title pages and paste-downs but had a less ornamental gilt spine. Style III from 1935-1953 was the simplest design yet, featuring no floral design work, and only the title at the top of the spine, and “Everyman’s Library” at the bottom. The title pages featured an ornamental device for each of the categories and the paste-downs were a repeating pattern of swirls. Both were designed by Eric Ravillious. Style IV from 1953-1968 represents the biggest change. These editions are slightly larger than the previous ones and feature all new designs for the binding, paste-downs, and title pages. The binding is similar to the previous style in that it contains the title at the top of the spine, but “Everyman’s Library” has been replaced by an overlapping, cursive “E” and “L”. The paste-down was the same overlapping “E” and “L” found on the spine, but in a repeating pattern. The title pages were the simplest yet. They had no distinguishing feature other than a printer’s device of a dolphin wrapped around an anchor.

From the Irish collection to the Liturgy and Life Collection, the personal libraries of authors Rex Stout and Flann O’Brien, copies of the EML can be found in all of the major collections in the Burns Library.

The Everyman’s Library: Volumes from the Collections of the John J. Burns Library is on display in the Ford Tower at the Burns Library through December 31, 2014.  The exhibit is open whenever the Burns Library is open.  Check the BC Libraries hours page for the Burns Library’s open hours.

AndrewAndrew-Isidoro Isidoro, Library Assistant, Burns Library

 

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George Sandys, the Ethnographer: A Man Before His Time

George Sandys (1577 – 1644) was an English traveller, colonist and poet.

George Sandys (1577 – 1644) was an English traveler, colonist and poet.

George Sandys was the seventh and youngest son of Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York for the Church of England. Sandys’ Relation was a seminal work at the time, detailing the culture of the Ottoman Empire as well as the ecumenical Christian festivities in Jerusalem for Easter. Sandys was also a poet and noted translator of Classics. His interests in both Classics and poetry contributed to the structure of his writing as did his upbringing in a noted Protestant family. Sandys went on to become treasurer of The Virginia Company and was a member of the council of state and his majesty’s council for Virginia.

Hellespont map from <i> A Relation of a Journey begun an: Dom: 1610 </i> by George Sandys, London, 1627, 03-3544 General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

Hellespont map from A Relation of a Journey begun an: Dom: 1610 by George Sandys, London, 1627, 03-3544 General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

The well-educated readers of Sandys’ Relation, nobles and churchmen, would be well acquainted with France and Italy if not from travel then from considerable reading. By beginning his account in Paris and then Venice, Sandys drew in the readers with something familiar. From there on out, the reader would be fixed in a familiar framework and, as such, able to better comprehend the foreign. This mechanism of familiarization is present throughout much of the book, with Sandys using classical allegory and myth as a means of connecting his readers to an otherwise entirely foreign area.

"Part of Africa" map from <em>A relation of a journey begun an: Dom: 1610</em> by George Sandys, 1627, 03-3544 General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

“Part of Africa” map from A relation of a journey begun an: Dom: 1610 by George Sandys, 1627, 03-3544 General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

The fold-out map from the beginning of Sandys’ travels is both typical for the time and notable for its idiosyncrasies. Quite naturally the regions travelled by Sandys are expressed in greater detail, but there is something to be said for the gaps in the map, the “silences.” Bastions of Christendom, and the Holy Land, are represented in great detail; regions where Islam is prevalent are sketched in with minimal detail. This is likewise the case for the perceived backwaters of Christendom. The North and East of Europe, spreading into Asia, remains comparatively sparse. Some of the perceived idiosyncrasies are simply matters of convention for the day. The moniker “Part of ____” appears at first to be an insult to the Africans and the Arabians. This, however, is a common usage in contemporary maps of this era, demonstrating a lack of detail on the regions considered beyond the scope of the map’s focus.

On the left, "Constantinople Pillar" and on the right, "Man in Turkish Dress" from <i>A relation of a journey begun an: Dom: 1610</i> by George Sandys, 1627, 03-3544 General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

On the left, “Constantinople Pillar” and on the right, “Man in Turkish Dress” from A relation of a journey begun an: Dom: 1610 by George Sandys, 1627, 03-3544 General Collection, John J. Burns Library, Boston College.

The accompanying images aid greatly in the analysis of the map. These brief images provide insight both into what the artist actually saw, as well as what they perceive. The image of the Turkish man is an honest attempt at capturing the perceived exoticism of the “Orient” but also serves as a caricature of sorts. These types of images reinforce, and in some cases establish, the corpus of literature describing the people of Asia and the Middle East.  Likewise, the landscape drawings capture the perceptions of George Sandys.  The details that he chooses to emphasize or de-emphasize give insight into his perception of the relative importance of facets of his journey.

  • Nicholas Cochran-Caggiano, BC Class of 2014

The images and content in this blog post are from the exhibit Ordering the Unknown:  The European Mapping Tradition from 1600 to 1860, which is now on display in the History Department, Stokes 3rd Floor South.    This exhibit was curated and organized by Professor Sylvia Sellers-Garcia’s Spring 2014 Making History Public class, in collaboration with the Boston College University Libraries.  

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Exhibitions Update: Commitment to Craftsmanship

 

CommitmentfullsizeA new Burns Library exhibit, Commitment to Craftsmanship:  Conservation Bookbindings by Mark Esser, is now on display through January 16, 2015.   This exhibit is designed to introduce Boston College students to bookbinding and book conservation, explores the training Mark received, his background as a teacher at the North Bennet Street School (NBSS), and showcases some of the conservation bindings that he produced as Book Conservator for the John J. Burns Library of Rare Books and Special Collections.  Mark Esser was Rare Book Conservator in the John J. Burns Library at Boston College from 1994 until 2008. He began his training in bookbinding in 1979 at the Harcourt Bindery in Boston. He then worked in the Conservation Bindery at the Newberry Library in Chicago while studying privately with David Brock. Esser apprenticed with William Anthony from 1982 to 1986, first at Anthony & Associates in Chicago and then at the Conservation Department of the University of Iowa Libraries. He now works privately.

Mark Esser drills a binder board while preparing the boards for lacing-in, from <a href = "https://archive.org/stream/bostoncollegemagsp2000bos#page/n21/mode/2up"> Construction Worker</a> by Anna Marie Murphy, <i>Boston College Magazine</i>, Spring 2000, p. 20-21.

Mark Esser drills a binder board while preparing the boards for lacing-in, from Construction Worker by Anna Marie Murphy, Boston College Magazine, Spring 2000, p. 20-21.

In 1986, he developed the curriculum and was the first instructor for the hand bookbinding program at the NBSS in Boston, teaching the course until 1994. NBSS offers intensive, hands-on training in traditional trades and fine craftsmanship, helping students to achieve meaningful livelihoods. The exceptional programs, master faculty and inspiring community have encouraged individual growth, technical mastery, and commitment to excellence, attracting students from all over the world. NBSS was founded in 1885 by Pauline Agassiz Shaw. Mark was an outstanding teacher; his students work in renowned institutions, including: Harvard University Libraries, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston College, University of Delaware, Maryland State Archives, the Boston Athenaeum, the Library of Congress, the Huntington Library, and the American Antiquarian Society.

Mark was greatly admired at Boston College for the finely crafted bindings he created. The Guild of Book Workers also recognized his exceptional skills, featuring his work in key exhibitions such as their 80th Anniversary show. The Guild was founded in 1906 to “establish and maintain a feeling of kinship and mutual interest among workers in the several hand book crafts”. The Guild provides members with workshops, training, and exhibit opportunities.

<a href="http://bc-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo_library/libweb/action/dlSearch.do?institution=BCL&amp;vid=bclib&amp;onCampus=true&amp;group=GUEST&amp;loc=local,scope:(BCL)&amp;query=any,contains,ALMA-BC21328035200001021"><i>An Historical and Political Discourse of the Laws &amp; Government of England.</i> </a> Mark Esser's binding of this book closely resembles 17th and 18th century bindings in the Burns Library's collections. The brown-colored calfskin leather was sprinkled with black pigment to give an overall subtle pattern on the surface. The burgundy-colored lettering piece with gilt titling is also an authentic element.

An Historical and Political Discourse of the Laws & Government of England. Mark Esser’s binding of this book closely resembles 17th and 18th century bindings in the Burns Library’s collections. The brown-colored calfskin leather was sprinkled with black pigment to give an overall subtle pattern on the surface. The burgundy-colored lettering piece with gilt titling is also an authentic element.

In 2013 Designer Bookbinders of the United Kingdom declared Mark a Distinguished Winner in its International Bookbinding Competition. Designer Bookbinders, as described on its website, was “founded over fifty years ago, and has by means of exhibitions and publications, helped to establish the reputation of British bookbinding worldwide. Its membership includes some of the most highly regarded makers in the fields of fine bookbinding, book arts and artists’ books.”

 

Mark continued the work of his Boston College predecessor and former student, Marilyn Heskett, by training interns in the Bookbuilders of Boston internship program.  Bookbuilders of Boston, founded in 1937, has a membership representing all facets of the book industry: editing, design, production, manufacturing, and marketing. This organization has created a scholarship fund to support, encourage, and promote publishing related education. Participating schools, such as Boston College, award the scholarships to students who plan to pursue careers in the industry.

Committed to Craftsmanship:  Conservation Bookbindings by Mark Esser is on display at the Burns Library through January 16, 2015.  The exhibit is open whenever the Burns Library is open.  Check the BC Libraries hours page for the Burns Library’s open hours.

Barbara Adams Hebard, Conservator, John J. Burns LibraryBarbara Adams Hebard, Conservator

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