In my previous post I gave an overview of medieval liturgical and musical books. One of these is the antiphonale or antiphoner, which contains the proper antiphons for the Divine Office. The Burns Library owns a beautiful (and now digitized) 14th century Franciscan antiphoner from southern Germany.
Like the Augustinian Gradual, this Antiphoner was made large enough to be used by more than one person at once. It was, in other words, a choir book.
Most of the Burns Antiphoner reflects the dominant musical tradition of the Middle Ages, monophonic Gregorian chant. This type of chant is “monophonic” because it contains a single line of melody sung by all. Monophony is not the same as monotony, which has no variation in pitch. Monophony can be, in fact, quite complex. (Listen to this classic example from the Gregorian repertoire.)
Among the more typical chants, however, lies a rarity: an example of multiple notes being chanted at the same time. Here is a description from the Finding Aid:
A second vocal part has been added to the first stanza of the sequence Celi solem imitantes, in a simple organum style consisting almost entirely of octaves and fifths. This, the only polyphonic source of this sequence, provides valuable evidence of polyphony being employed as a performance style by Franciscans in this period. (Further evidence is provided in the Quatuor Principalia, of similar date, by an anonymous Franciscan friar from Bristol, preserved in London, British Library Add. 4909.)
The text in question is a sequence, a metrical Latin poem intended to be sung in Mass between the gradual and the gospel. Few of these survived the massive liturgical reforms of the past five centuries, but at least a handful of well-known sequences remain: the Lauda Sion sequence for Corpus Christi, the Veni Sancte Spiritus for Pentecost, the Victimae Paschali for Easter, and the Stabat Mater for Our Lady of Sorrows (used more often now at Stations of the Cross).
As I mentioned in the previous post, the late medieval liturgy was already relatively standardized before the Tridentine reforms. The sequences, however, give an especially telling window into local variation. The Burns Antiphoner contains a very rare sequence for St. Francis, Celi cives in colono.
The sequence Celi solem imitantes, however, was widely used for commemorations of the Apostles. The sequence was written by Adam of St. Victor in the 12th century, and a somewhat paraphrastic (but metrical) translation of the first stanza runs as follows, from Digby Wrangham in 1881:
Like the setting sun in heaven,
These, most glorious in life’s even,
Introduce the Sun’s new birth,
Yea, the true Sun’s rise and setting ;
Of whose fate, their deaths relating,
Tell thus all the ends of earth.
It is probably more correct to call the manuscript’s unusual second line of notes homophony rather than polyphony (though the terms are not always used consistently). Homophony involves multiple tones but the same rhythm and text; that is, it involves harmony. Polyphony, as it developed later, involved not only multiple tones but multiple independent rhythmic and melodic lines. (One of the most famous and sumptuous examples is Thomas Tallis’ Spem in alium, involving some forty parts.)
The Burns Library has quite a few musical scores that feature polyphony, not least from the years leading up to the Second Vatican Council, featured in the Liturgy and Life Collection. Closer to the medieval period, however, is the work of 16th century Spanish composer Cristóbal de Morales. Burns has a 1546 edition of his polyphonic mass settings. This book, with the compositions it contains, represents the golden age of Renaissance polyphony. Note, in the Kyrie from Missa de Beata Virgine, the four parts are written separately, but sung together. A more recent edited version of this same mass is available online through the Choral Public Domain Library.
From monophony to polyphony, from ordinary to proper, music has much to tell us about the liturgy and culture of the late medieval and early modern era.
- Samuel Keyes, Burns Library Reading Room Student Assistant & Doctoral Student in the Department of Theology.