The Jesuit Ordeal I: Bold Moves in Tumultuous Times

This map, from the <a href = "http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/QuebecHistory/encyclopedia/SevenYearsWar-FrenchandIndianWar-TheWaroftheConquest.htm"> Quebec History Encyclopedia </a>  shows the respective geographical positions of the  European powers in North America between 1755 and 1760, as the Seven Years' War is taking place.

This map, from the Quebec History Encyclopedia shows the respective geographical positions of the European powers in North America between 1755 and 1760, as the Seven Years’ War is taking place.

In 1755, the world simmered at the brink of war. Shots had been fired between French soldiers and British colonists in the Ohio River Valley, and Europeans began to anticipate a violent end to their anxious peace. The formal declaration of war would trigger a network of alliances and embroil world superpowers in a contest of unprecedented scale. Armies, navies, mercenaries, and militias stood ready to sweep across the globe, and the world waited.

Into this atmosphere of uncertainty, a French planter in Martinique boldly moved. Antoine La Valette had borrowed heavily from creditors and investors on both sides of the Atlantic. He now outfitted five ships to carry cargo under the Dutch flag from the free port of Saint Eustatius to his agents in Amsterdam. If all went well, the revenues would clear his debts with enough left over to purchase additional properties and slaves.

Antoine La Valette would not be so lucky, however, for war intervened, robbing him of his anticipated profits. In what may have been the first official action of the Seven Years’ War (1756-63), privateers under the British flag intercepted and seized La Valette’s cargo, leaving him bereft. By 1760, La Valette had already defaulted on over 1.5 million livres of debt, and his creditors – themselves now in risk of bankruptcy – sued.

Précis of the case against La Valette.

A précis of the case against La Valette, BX3731.D57 1764 Jesuitica.

La Valette’s creditors may have had good reason to expect reimbursement, for La Valette was no ordinary planter. He was Père Antoine La Valette, the Jesuit procurer charged with the oversight and administration of all Jesuit missions, properties, and businesses throughout the French Caribbean. Certainly, he could liquidate sufficient resources to repay his debts, or lacking that, his Superior in France could mobilize the necessary funds.

But La Valette temporized, either unwilling or unable to make such public concessions. In undertaking speculative ventures, he had acted without his Superior’s knowledge and had willfully broken the rules of his Order. Moreover, the Jesuits had already been backed into a precarious position. La Valette may have recognized that the dangers at hand extended far beyond the pale of his own dealings in the Caribbean.

The Portuguese Prime Minister, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo (later the Marquis of Pombal), had long been jockeying for power with the Jesuit priests who dominated the royal court in Lisbon. In 1757, he gained the upper hand. King José agreed to expel the Jesuits from his household, and in the following year, Carvalho’s continued intrigue at the Portuguese court compelled Pope Clement XIV to commission a formal inquest.

"An authentic account of the war that the religious have waged against the monarchs of Spain and Portugal." Published under the authority of Melo.

An authentic account of the war that the religious have waged against the monarchs of Spain and Portugal,” BX3714.P3 R47 1758 Jesuitica. Published under the authority of Carvalho.

At the heart of the controversy was whether Jesuit missionaries in Paraguay – famous for their successes among the Guaraní but controversial for their disruption of the slave trade – had overstepped their evangelical mission by exploiting indigenous labor, running extra-legal mines for precious metals, and most importantly, engaging in illicit trade. Carvalho wrote a series of pamphlets raising these accusations, going so far as to publish them falsely under the name of a Jesuit publisher, thus crafting his accusations to appear as a Jesuit confession.

Carvalho succeeded. When his king was ambushed on the night of September 3, 1758, while traveling in an unmarked carriage, Carvalho managed to implicate his most powerful political adversaries in the affair, namely the Portuguese high nobility and the Jesuit Order. In January 1759, King José decreed that the Jesuits be confined to their colleges, and in September of that year, he promulgated their expulsion. Carvalho celebrated his achievement in another series of pamphlets, which were in turn reported in the underground Paris newspaper, Nouvelles ecclésiastiques.

The King of Portugal had expelled the Jesuits, and his chief adviser found in Paris a ready audience for his invective. But the French Jesuits’ fate was not yet sealed. They still retained their reputation, and in the days to come, they would fight both to distance themselves from La Valette’s illicit business and to do everything within their power to mollify his creditors.

A selection of books documenting the suppression of the Jesuit Order. These books are part of the Burns Library's Jesuitica collection.

A selection of books documenting the suppression of the Jesuit Order. These books are part of the Burns Library’s Jesuitica Collection.

The actions of Carvalho and La Valette inaugurated a period of Jesuit suppression that would last until 1814. This year marks the 200th anniversary of that Jesuit restoration. The Burns Library maintains an extensive collection of materials documenting this critical moment in history. This post inaugurates a series of posts on the Jesuit Suppression. See also Satire and Suppression and Memories of Malagrida.

To learn more about the Jesuitica Collection at the Burns Library, browse the digitized book and manuscript holdings in the BC Libraries Digital Collections or read about exhibits on the Jesuitica Collection on the websites listed below. If you have further questions or would like to do research in this collection, please contact the Burns Library Reading Room  at 617-552-4861 or burnsref@bc.edu.

  • Matthew Delvaux, Burns Library Reading Room Student Assistant & Ph.D. Student in the Department of History.

A Selection of Burns Library Exhibits Featuring Materials from the Jesuitica Collection

About John J. Burns Library of Rare Books and Special Collections at Boston College

The University’s special collections, including the University’s Archives, are housed in the Honorable John J. Burns Library, located in the Bapst Library Building, north entrance. Burns Library staff work with students and faculty to support learning and teaching at Boston College, offering access to unique primary sources through instruction sessions, exhibits, and programming. The Burns Library also serves the research needs of external scholars, hosting researchers from around the globe interested in using the collections. The Burns Library is home to more than 200,000 volumes and over 700 manuscript collections, including holdings of music, photographic materials, art and artifacts, and ephemera. Though its collections cover virtually the entire spectrum of human knowledge, the Burns Library has achieved international recognition in several specific areas of research, most notably: Irish studies; British Catholic authors; Jesuitica; Fine printing; Catholic liturgy and life in America, 1925-1975; Boston history; the Caribbean, especially Jamaica; Nursing; and Congressional archives.
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